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The oldest references to Robin Hood are not historical records, or even ballads recounting his exploits, but hints and allusions found in various works.
From onward, the names "Robinhood", "Robehod", or "Robbehod" occur in the rolls of several English Justices as nicknames or descriptions of malefactors.
The majority of these references date from the late 13th century. Between and , there are at least eight references to "Rabunhod" in various regions across England, from Berkshire in the south to York in the north.
Leaving aside the reference to the "rhymes" of Robin Hood in Piers Plowman in the s,   and the scattered mentions of his "tales and songs" in various religious tracts dating to the early s,    the first mention of a quasi-historical Robin Hood is given in Andrew of Wyntoun 's Orygynale Chronicle , written in about The following lines occur with little contextualisation under the year In a petition presented to Parliament in , the name is used to describe an itinerant felon.
The petition cites one Piers Venables of Aston, Derbyshire [ disambiguation needed ] , "who having no liflode, ne sufficeante of goodes, gadered and assembled unto him many misdoers, beynge of his clothynge, and, in manere of insurrection, wente into the wodes in that countrie, like as it hadde be Robyn Hude and his meyne.
The next historical description of Robin Hood is a statement in the Scotichronicon , composed by John of Fordun between and , and revised by Walter Bower in about Among Bower's many interpolations is a passage that directly refers to Robin.
It is inserted after Fordun's account of the defeat of Simon de Montfort and the punishment of his adherents, and is entered under the year in Bower's account.
Robin is represented as a fighter for de Montfort's cause. The word translated here as 'murderer' is the Latin sicarius literally 'dagger-man' , from the Latin sica for 'dagger', and descends from its use to describe the Sicarii , assassins operating in Roman Judea.
Bower goes on to relate an anecdote about Robin Hood in which he refuses to flee from his enemies while hearing Mass in the greenwood, and then gains a surprise victory over them, apparently as a reward for his piety; the mention of "tragedies" suggests that some form of the tale relating his death, as per A Gest of Robyn Hode , might have been in currency already.
Another reference, discovered by Julian Luxford in , appears in the margin of the " Polychronicon " in the Eton College library.
Written around the year by a monk in Latin, it says:. In , jurist Edward Coke described Robin Hood as a historical figure who had operated in the reign of King Richard I around Yorkshire; he interpreted the contemporary term "roberdsmen" outlaws as meaning followers of Robin Hood.
The earliest known legal records mentioning a person called Robin Hood Robert Hod are from , found in the York Assizes , when that person's goods, worth 32 shillings and 6 pence, were confiscated and he became an outlaw.
Robert Hod owed the money to St Peter's in York. The following year, he was called "Hobbehod", and also came to known as "Robert Hood".
Robert Hod of York is the only early Robin Hood known to have been an outlaw. Owen in floated the idea that Robin Hood might be identified with an outlawed Robert Hood, or Hod, or Hobbehod, all apparently the same man, referred to in nine successive Yorkshire Pipe Rolls between and Historian Oscar de Ville discusses the career of John Deyville and his brother Robert, along with their kinsmen Jocelin and Adam, during the Second Barons' War , specifically their activities after the Battle of Evesham.
John Deyville was granted authority by the faction led by Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester over York Castle and the Northern Forests during the war in which they sought refuge after Evesham.
John, along with his relatives, led the remaining rebel faction on the Isle of Ely following the Dictum of Kenilworth.
While John was eventually pardoned and continued his career until , his kinsmen are no longer mentioned by historical records after the events surrounding their resistance at Ely, and de Ville speculates that Robert remained an outlaw.
The last of these is suggested to be the inspiration for Robin Hood's second name as opposed to the more common theory of a head covering. Although de Ville does not explicitly connect John and Robert Deyville to Robin Hood, he discusses these parallels in detail and suggests that they formed prototypes for this ideal of heroic outlawry during the tumultuous reign of Henry III's grandson and Edward I's son, Edward II of England.
David Baldwin identifies Robin Hood with the historical outlaw Roger Godberd , who was a die-hard supporter of Simon de Montfort , which would place Robin Hood around the s.
John Maddicott has called Godberd "that prototype Robin Hood". The antiquarian Joseph Hunter — believed that Robin Hood had inhabited the forests of Yorkshire during the early decades of the fourteenth century.
Hunter pointed to two men whom, believing them to be the same person, he identified with the legendary outlaw:. Hunter developed a fairly detailed theory implying that Robert Hood had been an adherent of the rebel Earl of Lancaster , who was defeated by Edward II at the Battle of Boroughbridge in According to this theory, Robert Hood was thereafter pardoned and employed as a bodyguard by King Edward, and in consequence he appears in the court roll under the name of "Robyn Hode".
Hunter's theory has long been recognised to have serious problems, one of the most serious being that recent research has shown that Hunter's Robyn Hood had been employed by the king before he appeared in the court roll, thus casting doubt on this Robyn Hood's supposed earlier career as outlaw and rebel.
It has long been suggested, notably by John Maddicott , that "Robin Hood" was a stock alias used by thieves. There is at present little or no scholarly support for the view that tales of Robin Hood have stemmed from mythology or folklore, from fairies or other mythological origins, any such associations being regarded as later development.
While the outlaw often shows great skill in archery, swordplay and disguise, his feats are no more exaggerated than those of characters in other ballads, such as Kinmont Willie , which were based on historical events.
Robin Hood has also been claimed for the pagan witch-cult supposed by Margaret Murray to have existed in medieval Europe, and his anti-clericalism and Marianism interpreted in this light.
The early ballads link Robin Hood to identifiable real places. In popular culture, Robin Hood and his band of "merry men" are portrayed as living in Sherwood Forest , in Nottinghamshire.
His chronicle entry reads:. Mary in the village of Edwinstowe and most famously of all, the Major Oak also located at the village of Edwinstowe.
Dendrologists have contradicted this claim by estimating the tree's true age at around eight hundred years; it would have been relatively a sapling in Robin's time, at best.
Nottinghamshire's claim to Robin Hood's heritage is disputed, with Yorkists staking a claim to the outlaw. In demonstrating Yorkshire's Robin Hood heritage, the historian J.
Holt drew attention to the fact that although Sherwood Forest is mentioned in Robin Hood and the Monk , there is little information about the topography of the region, and thus suggested that Robin Hood was drawn to Nottinghamshire through his interactions with the city's sheriff.
Robin Hood's Yorkshire origins are generally accepted by professional historians. A tradition dating back at least to the end of the 16th century gives Robin Hood's birthplace as Loxley , Sheffield , in South Yorkshire.
The original Robin Hood ballads, which originate from the fifteenth century, set events in the medieval forest of Barnsdale.
Barnsdale was a wooded area covering an expanse of no more than thirty square miles, ranging six miles from north to south, with the River Went at Wentbridge near Pontefract forming its northern boundary and the villages of Skelbrooke and Hampole forming the southernmost region.
From east to west the forest extended about five miles, from Askern on the east to Badsworth in the west. During the medieval age Wentbridge was sometimes locally referred to by the name of Barnsdale because it was the predominant settlement in the forest.
And, while Wentbridge is not directly named in A Gest of Robyn Hode , the poem does appear to make a cryptic reference to the locality by depicting a poor knight explaining to Robin Hood that he 'went at a bridge' where there was wrestling'.
The Gest makes a specific reference to the Saylis at Wentbridge. Credit is due to the nineteenth-century antiquarian Joseph Hunter , who correctly identified the site of the Saylis.
The Saylis is recorded as having contributed towards the aid that was granted to Edward III in —47 for the knighting of the Black Prince.
An acre of landholding is listed within a glebe terrier of relating to Kirk Smeaton , which later came to be called "Sailes Close".
Taylor indicate that such evidence of continuity makes it virtually certain that the Saylis that was so well known to Robin Hood is preserved today as "Sayles Plantation".
One final locality in the forest of Barnsdale that is associated with Robin Hood is the village of Campsall. Davis indicates that there is only one church dedicated to Mary Magdalene within what one might reasonably consider to have been the medieval forest of Barnsdale, and that is the church at Campsall.
The church was built in the late eleventh century by Robert de Lacy, the 2nd Baron of Pontefract. The backdrop of St Mary's Abbey, York plays a central role in the Gest as the poor knight whom Robin aids owes money to the abbot.
At Kirklees Priory in West Yorkshire stands an alleged grave with a spurious inscription, which relates to Robin Hood. The fifteenth-century ballads relate that before he died, Robin told Little John where to bury him.
He shot an arrow from the Priory window, and where the arrow landed was to be the site of his grave. The Gest states that the Prioress was a relative of Robin's.
Robin was ill and staying at the Priory where the Prioress was supposedly caring for him. However, she betrayed him, his health worsened, and he eventually died there.
The inscription on the grave reads,. Despite the unconventional spelling, the verse is in Modern English , not the Middle English of the 13th century.
The date is also incorrectly formatted — using the Roman calendar , "24 kal Decembris" would be the twenty-third day before the beginning of December, that is, 8 November.
The tomb probably dates from the late eighteenth century. The grave with the inscription is within sight of the ruins of the Kirklees Priory, behind the Three Nuns pub in Mirfield , West Yorkshire.
Though local folklore suggests that Robin is buried in the grounds of Kirklees Priory , this theory has now largely been abandoned by professional historians.
Another theory is that Robin Hood died at Kirkby, Pontefract. Michael Drayton 's Poly-Olbion Song 28 67—70 , published in , speaks of Robin Hood's death and clearly states that the outlaw died at 'Kirkby'.
The location is approximately three miles from the site of Robin's robberies at the now famous Saylis. All Saints' Church had a priory hospital attached to it.
The Tudor historian Richard Grafton stated that the prioress who murdered Robin Hood buried the outlaw beside the road,. Where he had used to rob and spoyle those that passed that way All Saints' Church at Kirkby, modern Pontefract, which was located approximately three miles from the site of Robin Hood's robberies at the Saylis, is consistent with Richard Grafton's description because a road ran directly from Wentbridge to the hospital at Kirkby.
Within close proximity of Wentbridge reside several notable landmarks relating to Robin Hood. One such place-name location occurred in a cartulary deed of from Monkbretton Priory, which makes direct reference to a landmark named Robin Hood's Stone, which resided upon the eastern side of the Great North Road, a mile south of Barnsdale Bar.
Robin Hood type place-names occurred particularly everywhere except Sherwood. The first place-name in Sherwood does not appear until the year The Sheriff of Nottingham also had jurisdiction in Derbyshire that was known as the "Shire of the Deer", and this is where the Royal Forest of the Peak is found, which roughly corresponds to today's Peak District National Park.
Mercia , to which Nottingham belonged, came to within three miles of Sheffield City Centre. But before the Law of the Normans was the Law of the Danes, The Danelaw had a similar boundary to that of Mercia but had a population of Free Peasantry that were known to have resisted the Norman occupation.
Many outlaws could have been created by the refusal to recognise Norman Forest Law. Further indications of the legend's connection with West Yorkshire and particularly Calderdale are noted in the fact that there are pubs called the Robin Hood in both nearby Brighouse and at Cragg Vale ; higher up in the Pennines beyond Halifax , where Robin Hood Rocks can also be found.
Considering these references to Robin Hood, it is not surprising that the people of both South and West Yorkshire lay some claim to Robin Hood, who, if he existed, could easily have roamed between Nottingham, Lincoln , Doncaster and right into West Yorkshire.
A British Army Territorial reserves battalion formed in Nottingham in was known as The Robin Hood Battalion through various reorganisations until the "Robin Hood" name finally disappeared in Share Embed.
Read Critic Reviews. Add to Cart. About This Game England, Anno Domini — Richard the Lionheart is held prisoner and his brother, Prince John rules over the simple peasants with an iron hand and this pure force of arms forces them to bend to authority.
Only one man takes up the struggle against the oppressors, supported by a small band of brave and loyal followers. His name; Robin Hood.
Key features: Non-linear campaign system with over 30 different missions Mission types from Robbery and Infiltration to Castle Attack and Ambush Combines action and adventure with stealth tactical elements Innovative combat system, interact with the mouse while fighting to access special combat skills Play as Robin Hood, Little John, Friar Tuck or even Maid Marian, nine characters in all, each with specific abilities and attributes Spectacular graphics with realistic atmospheric conditions like day, night and fog Explore historic locations; Sherwood Forest, Nottingham Castle, York and many more.
System Requirements Windows. System Requirements OS See all. View all. Click here to see them. Customer reviews. The information about the install size of Robin Hood is currently not available.
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To make this close-range combat a more integral part of the gameplay, you can perform different types of sword swing by making shapes with your mouse.
But this is still a highly tactical puzzle game where, as always, a tremendous amount of patience is required to get past even the earliest levels.
You can distract soldiers by throwing bags of money, disguise a character as a beggar, lure enemies into traps, distract them with whistles and so on.
By comparison, Robin Hood feels restrictive and dated. There are some distinctive touches, such as the Sherwood base of operations you return to after each mission, where you can train your merry men each of which has a simple combat stat and collect the resources you need in your adventures stones, apples, arrows and so on.Read more about it in the blog post. In it, the character Valentine is banished from Milan and driven out through the forest where he is approached by outlaws who, upon meeting him, desire him as their leader. The last of these is suggested Robin Hood Game Www 1000 Spiele De the inspiration for Robin Hood's second name as opposed to the more common theory of a head covering. Wo Wohnt Tanzverbot Softonic we scan all the files hosted on our platform Frankreich Nationalmannschaft assess and avoid Solitär Klassisch Gratis potential harm for your device. With the advent of printing came the Robin Hood broadside ballads. The church was built in the late eleventh century by Robert de Bonus Ohne Einzahlung 2021 Casino, the 2nd Baron of Pontefract. The character of Robin in these first texts is rougher edged than in his later incarnations. In copious and informative notes Ritson Gratis Poker Spielen every point of his version of Robin Hood's life. These developments are part of the 20th-century Robin Hood myth. More about Robin Hood This game is available for users with the operating system Windows XP and former Russland Vs England, and you can get it in different languages such as English, Spanish, and German. Within Robin Hood's band, medieval forms of courtesy rather than modern ideals of equality are generally in evidence. Your review for Robin Hood. This view first gained currency in the 16th century. Further indications of the legend's connection with West Yorkshire and particularly Calderdale are noted in the fact that Erfahrungen Bdswiss are pubs called the Robin Hood in both nearby Wette3 and at Cragg Vale ; higher up in the Pennines beyond Halifax Zug Dominosteine, where Robin Hood Rocks can also be found.